EV Charging Terms and Definitions

2023-11-03 11:31:17  Resource

The electric vehicle (EV) charging industry is known for its reliance on a multitude of engineering processes and technologies, resulting in a host of unique terms and definitions.

If you're not well-versed in the technicalities of this fast-growing sector, you might be surprised by just how many specific jargon words and phrases are used. A deeper understanding of these terms is key to comprehending the EV charging industry and keeping up with its rapid development.

ev charging terms

Terms about EV

Electric vehicle (EV):  Any vehicle powered by an electric motor. See subtypes (BEV, HEV, PHEV).

Battery electric vehicle (BEV):  An electric vehicle that runs solely on battery power. The batteries can be recharged through regenerative braking or plugging into a compatible electrical source (charging station).

Hybrid electric vehicle (HEV): A vehicle powered by an efficient combination of a self-charging electric motor and an internal combustion engine (ICE). The electric motor starts the car, powers it for a short distance, and then switches to the ICE. 

Plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV):  An HEV with an electric motor that is recharged by plugging into a compatible electrical source (charging station). PHEV batteries do not recharge through regenerative braking. 

Battery: Where the EV's power is stored; the equivalent of an ICE-powered vehicle’s gas tank. EV batteries contain multiple cells and modules that determine their total storage capacity.

Motor: The motor in an EV converts electricity into mechanical power. It does this by running a current through wound copper wire circuits that create a rotating magnetic field. This moves a rotor that drives axle rotation and the EV’s wheels.

Zero-emission vehicle (ZEV): Any vehicle that produces no emissions during operation. A prime example is the BEV.

Electrical Terms

Kilowatt-hours (kWh): A measurement of the power of one kilowatt (1,000 watts) maintained for one hour, used to determine the total power potential of a battery.

Alternating current (AC): The electrical standard used in homes and by the power grid. It allows long runs of cable with less power loss.

Direct current (DC): The electrical standard used in most electronics and EVs. EVs convert AC power to DC power in the process of charging.

Learn more about: the differences between AC and DC charger

On-board charger (OBC): On-board chargers convert alternating current (AC) to direct current (DC) to charge an EV’s batteries. Level 3 (fast-charging) stations don’t need an OBC since they already provide direct current.

Infrastructure Terms

Electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE): Everything needed to charge an EV, including connectors, cables, and charging points. EVSE includes safeguards to avoid overcharging.

Level 1 ev chargerlevel 2 ev chargerlevel 3 dc fast charger

Level 1 charging: The charge is available from a standard household outlet, including 120V output and between 8 and 20 amps. Level 1 can take up to 24 hours to charge an empty EV battery.

Level 2 charging: Most charge points are Level 2, including 240V output and up to 80 amps. A full charge of an empty battery takes about 4 to 6 hours.

Level 3 charging: Also referred to as Fast Charging, these charging points use DC to charge empty batteries in as fast as 30 minutes. Level 3 charging goes up to 1000V and over 100 amps( Grasen Ultra-fast DC series goes up to 400A). 

Single-phase charging: A connector that draws power through a single cable. Three-phase charging, required for Level 3 charging, draws power through three cables.

Type 1 plug: The most common EV connector in the U.S., charging up to 7kW using a five-pin plug known as an SAE-J1772 or “J plug.”

Type 2 plug: A triple-phase plug charging up to 22kW (home) or 43kW (public).

Combined charging system (CCS): Among the most common EV plugs, a CCS1/CCS2 connector charges up to 420kW and includes DC charging pins and a type 1 / type 2 plug.  

CHAdeMO: A four-pin DC connector that charges up to 100 kW.

Open Charge Point Interface (OCPI):  Managed by the EVRoaming Foundation, the OCPI allows EV owners to roam between charging networks.

Open Charge Point Protocol (OCPP): The standard charging stations are used to communicate with their operators. Which has been a necessary condition required by many countries. (Grasen EV chargers are fully compatible with OCPP 1.6J and OCPP 2.0.1)

Open Smart Charging Protocol (OCSP): The OCSP communicates between charging points and energy management systems to predict capacity.

EV Charging Participants Terms

Charge point operator (CPO): Entities that operate a network of charging points, coordinating with the site owners, managing installation and maintenance, and ensuring operations with utilities go smoothly.

Charge point installer (CPI): Sells and maintains charging points made by multiple manufacturers.

Electric vehicle service provider (EVSP):  Manages charging point back-end software and communications.

Electro-mobility Service Provider (eMSP): Provides a large pool of charging points in a specific geographic area for EV drivers, including location directories, driver accounts, payment capabilities, and more.

Charging Protocols, and Software Terms

DC Charger and csms

Charge Point Management System (CPMS) or Charging Station Management System(CSMS): Software that manages and optimizes the EV charging process, including operations, payment, driver apps, dynamic load management, EV roaming, and more.

Roaming for EV charging: Allows EV drivers to charge their vehicles on different charging networks using a single recordkeeping and payment account.

Related Industry News
Our Customers

Very satisfied with the quality of the product and the suppliers service. The product was delivered in good package. Will definitely purchase from this supplier again.

-- Marcus Groll,A Charging Station Owner in UKRAINE

  • Grasen.com
  • Grasen.com
  • Grasen.com
  • Grasen.com
  • Are You Ready?

    Start your EV charging station businesses with Grasen. For a no-obligation quote, hit the button below, fill in your details, and we’ll get back to you.

    Get a quote
    • Get Connected
    • https://m.grasen.com/